Some 3000 BC ago, we know of a civilization that indulges us in the mystery of its grandeur design, the great bath that could have been more than that of baptismal importance, its reluctance to engage in warfare that might have been its gradual demise. Despite being structured in an intricate and unseen style, queerness in its beauty doesn't fail to inspire a whole new generation of handicrafts and civilizations after it. Harappan skillfully shaped their life and insight onto bronze figurines of today's interpreted gods and religious beliefs which were inherited and continue to. There were seals and tablets used by spiritual leaders to emphasize to the deities that have found recognition and rituals performed by common people.
We see the frequent idea of the seal of a male figure in a yogic position, surrounded by a tiger and water buffalo. It's meant to acknowledge the power of the man sitting cross-legged with a headdress being carried away by the fact it can tame wild animals. There is certainly no. of seals depicting animal sacrifice, some referring to female deities fighting a tiger ferociously. A theme popularized of a deity strangling two tigers is regarded as extremely similar to a scene found in Mesopotamia Gilgamesh epic. It could be intended as the resemblance of concepts of power and dominance between the two regions. The raw materials coming from far across, when reached Harappa, artisans in the city made ravishing jewellery and ornaments out of it. They were later purchased by wealthier and elite populations or were exported. The undeciphered texts from amulets, pottery vessels, seals make it a bit difficult to understand how individuals and communities maintained and gained over.
Every year in Pakistan Indus valley, villagers travel to large towns and attend sang where they are supposedly entertained like in any large fair. When minutely explored and rodded, archaeologists discovered modern pottery shards, a hundred pieces of recently manufactured glass bars, metal toys, and gold earrings along with inscribed tablets, figurines, clay marbles etcetera. The terra cotta items are likely to have been worn by children and commoners whereas the more stylish and uncommon ornaments were part of local upper-class populations. Raw materials used by Ravi craftsmen arrived from a site from 300 to 800 km away. Woven fabric on terracotta beads provides further proof of profound textile production and its trade.
During Kot dijian, artisans developed new technologies for making gray fired bangles and faience, the making of which requires the use of high-temperature kilns. Archaeologists also seemed to have recovered figures of cattle and humans etched carefully and precisely onto woven fabrics to enlighten the importance of clothing. Excavators have dug out shell bangles, carnelian, and pottery with common ritual motifs all through Indus valley among which is a motif distinct in depicting a mythical unicorn. The animal symbols may have stood out for important clans or social classes. The regular appearance of a mythical unicorn in seals indicates a widespread and powerful community. People who were well to do scripted their names into various pots and seals of those times to establish a sense of authority. Between 23OO and 19OO BCE urban population in Indus valley expanded and ornaments, tools, and manufacturing techniques became more significantly advanced. Copper was often used in India until bronze statues came into existence for their much preferred tensile strength as it can be noticed in case of the "Dancing Girl" bronze sculpture made in 2500 BCE using lost wax technique. To be vague, a solid wax model of the figure is made, surrounded by a clay model which is heated, and the shed wax is filled with a molten metal only to scrape the clay model off to polish the metal figure to its absolute perfection. Easier said than done! The Dhokra we talk about, with its name imminent from Damar tribes of the rich cultural west Bengal, has a precedent as minted as itself. There have been subtle and strong changes, from being much more simplistic in accordance with contemporaries to using brass as a potential metal or being prolific as much to extend from Jharkhand, Orissa, Rajasthan, and Chhattisgarh to Kerala. The carved bell metal sculptures had begun themselves from nomads who wandered around trading their lost wax castings having their own set of beliefs, praying to Tsavaram, and advanced into celebrating widely known love stories of Radha Krishna or portraying vivid fierceness of religious gods and goddesses. Dhokra suffices itself in scrap metal, resin, wax, clay, and firewood and yet somehow manages to emerge into intriguing mythical creatures transcended into objects of their sincerity. Dhokra has grown to become associated with modern artsy jewelry in mixed coloured black or red beads, shiny sunflowers, geometric squares or diamonds, expanse yet mustered vine are all part of what's worn today.
A considerable amount of sculptures are skilled from people's life and produced off how they live and draw the minutest chores of every day. Concepts borrowed from being basic as The Mahua tree to the cult goddess of the gonds "Danteshwari", it spins itself into the lives of tragic lovers "Jhitku Mitku" and stirs inexplicable curiosity for riveting folklores. Maria tribe of Bastar concocting the famous Madia Madin. A male and a female pair, both wearing headgears, one sticks to bison horns while the female "madin" adorns herself with some laid out peacock feathers. It's customary to most artisans while being subject to remaining intact as pairs. An instrument Todi, designed by artisans belonging to Gadwa tribe. Dated back to a local king, soldiers used its sound to initiate a battle and it gradually swifted away to religious rituals and gained humongous importance in theological groups seeking divinity and proceeds galvanizing communities to using it on auspicious events among tribes.
Kondhs, a community in Orissa whose very reason to create Dhokra is to meet its traditionally acclaimed beliefs worshiping animals and objects representing wellbeing, prosperity, and good successful hunting appeal acutely. They glorify buffalos for wealth, snakes to abstain deaths due to snakebites and deer to extended families. Dhokra objects signify status and gifted in marriages meaning to boost economic situation in a family. Whether it's Sadehiberani dhokras differing because of blue tones apart from the usual black colour of Rayagada dhokras or the Kalika, deity resembling a monster widely revered instead of Son of Vishwakarma in case of the Damar tribe, it all goes back to their faith and will to commemorate art without a halt.
Dhokra making process has several steps, which include making clay model, giving designs of bee-wax on dried clay, applying two layers of clay on wax design, and creating channels for molten brass. The model is heated, then the inner layer of beeswax melts and escapes through the channels, consequently creating a space in between. This, therefore, acts as a mold. Hot liquid brass is poured into the mold through the channels. It is allowed to cool until the brass completely solidifies. Then the outer mud layer is broken to obtain a brass model. After some final finishing touches, the exquisite Dhokra art is ready!